Ricardo Fox

2014
 

As part of an Otago University masters paper I was required to put together a resource for an area of the curriculum. I chose Te Reo Maori as it is a current professional development are in my school and I was interested in creating a resource for my teachers and others.


Search Information
When searching for information I used specific key words – Maori Language, Te Reo, Te Reo Maori, History of Maori Language, New Zealand Languages, native New Zealand Language, Maori in schools, Te Reo in Schools, Maori language learning and learning Te Reo.


When searching I used 3 different search engines – Bing, Yahoo and Google.


Each search engine delivered good results, but for the first time I did notice a difference in the algorithms each use. I found that Bing gave me more localised results and had many of my chosen resources in the top 20 hits. Google gave me more of varied lot of results and yahoo was very similar. I did notice that the more words I placed in the search, Google gave me far better results. Bing followed Google with good results, however I noticed that Yahoo didn't deliver better results.
Description of Resources Found


Many of the resources I found were very easy to find as Te Reo Maori is a very focused area on the Internet in comparison to other educational topics such as inquiry learning, formative assessment, English or Mathematics that have a global audience.
The resources I found included video clips, webpages, interactive webpages, games, Twitter accounts, Facebook accounts, mailing lists, online resources, purchasable items, news articles, scholarly articles, wikis and blogs.
What was of interest was that many of the resources I did find did not meet my criteria for very simple reasons. They were either too vague, did not link to learning, were too advanced, not trusted or did not fit with what I was looking for. Some of the resources I did not include in this resource guide of note were:


http://www.maorilanguage.net - too vague.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Māori_language - not trusted.
http://www.stuff.co.nz/stuff-nation/assignments/share-your-news-and-views/10420306/Myths-about-Maori-language-in-NZ - awesome resource but did not fit as it was a deficit model.
http://tetaurawhiri.govt.nz/english/issues_e/hist/index.shtml - did not fit or elaborate on information.
http://www.wicked.org.nz/Kokona-Maori - too advanced.
http://www.maori.ac.nz - too expensive to join
http://www.maoritelevision.com/tv/te-reo-channel - not specific enough.

 

Framework

First and foremost I used the New Zealand Curriculum Framework for assessing each resource. This Framework was chosen, as it is the basis of all learning in the classroom and would be silly to overlook with another framework. Each question was based on either a yes or no. If there was uncertainty about a resource it was considered a no. What was important after this framework was having simple and clear criteria to rate each resource.
Fig 1 – NZ Curriculum 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




The key questions for each resource assessment were –
Does the resource fit with the curriculum for teachers and students?
Does the resource fit with the key competencies for teachers and students?
Does the resource fit with the schools values, principals and the schools strategic vision?
Will the outcomes of this resource result in confident, connected, actively engaged teachers and students as learners?
What is the purpose of using this resource?

 

Criteria
I found many wonderful resources that fit within the above framework. The next step was to have clear criteria for measuring each resource. I kept this very simple using a picture I have in my office to remind me to never over complicate my leadership practice. The key defining points for differentiation of resources were that they had to be;

  • Theory and/or Practice Based

  • Linked to learning

  • Assessable to all learners (the birds)

  • Understandable for learners (the birds)

  •  

Each resource has been ranked against the four criteria areas worth 5 points each to make a total of 20.
1 Point – Does not meet the criteria
2 Points – Meets little of the criteria
3 Points – Meets some of the criteria
4 Points – Meets most of the criteria
5 Points – Meets all of the criteria


Fig 2 – My basic set of criteria (Felder & Hardgraft 2013)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




The Resources
The following resources have been collated over the past 4 weeks and fit with both my chosen Framework and Criteria.

Each explanation of the resources have been simplified in “plain language” so that those reading each resource understands the significance of how they fit with Te Reo Maori teaching and learning using Internet based resources.

Name – Maori Alphabet (Arapu)
Classification – Multimedia Resource - YouTube
Location – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9081U86Ylf4

Fig 3 – Maori Alphabet (Rae, 2013)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Description
This is a YouTube clip that is a song about the Maori Alphabet. It covers all the sounds that are used in every Maori word (Rae, 2013).


Personal Review
This is a prior knowledge resource from my own education from the East Coast tribe of Ngati Porou as a young boy. The learning of this song allows a person to pronounce any Maori word correctly. The song is also known as “A Ha Ka Ma” and is taught to all Maori pupils who attend Kohanga Reo.
The learning of this song is vital for all teachers to master initially as it will set them up for success in pronouncing students names, names of places and any Maori word that they need to say. The song breeds confidence in Te Reo Maori and sets a really good platform for success for both teachers and students.
Weaknesses/Limitations


The only limitation for this article is the time taken to learn the song and initial frustration with many of the different sounds.

Rating 19/20


Name – Korero Maori
Classification – Interactive Website
Location - http://www.korero.maori.nz

Fig 4 – Home Page (Korero Maori, 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Description
This website has been designed by the Maori Language Commission and I have chosen it as it fits in with my framework. I found this resource significant as it is designed for all levels of fluency and for anyone that wishes to learn Te Reo Maori. The resource includes sound clips to hear Maori words being pronounced, a place for interactive conversation, punctuation clips, guides for language at events, tips and tests for understanding and links to protocol, myths and legends, proverbs and waiata (Korero Maori, 2014).
Personal Review
I like this resource as many teachers and students enter the classroom with a range of prior knowledge and experience. Regardless of what level each person in the learning environment is at, there is a great starting point as an individual learner. The resource has a pleasurable mixture of both practice and theory. I think this website will be very useful as the person using it will be able to take their time to progress through each stage of learning. I really liked the link to real world face-to-face learning with the development of a Maori Language Club that allows for like-minded people to engage in conversation. Through further research I was concerned at levels of privacy or the people you may encounter if you were to take up this opportunity.
Weaknesses/Limitations
The limitations of this resource are the visuals of the site. While it is perfect for my focus of professional development, if it was to be used in the classroom I feel that students would switch off quickly. As stated above, I do have initial concerns with the safety of the “face to face” aspect if this was to be used. Rating 18/20


Name – Kupu o Te Ra
Classification – Mailing List/Twitter
Location – Twitter Handle - @kupumaorinz

Fig 5 – Kupu Handle (Kupumaorinz, 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Description
He Kupu o Te Ra was originally a wiki that sent regular emails to people that wanted a Maori word of the day. At the start of the school year in 2012 He Kupu o Te Ra moved to twitter in an ever-changing world of social media, after launching a Facebook page earlier in 2011. Each week a new Maori word is posted with a phrase in Maori and then in English (Kupumaorinz, 2014).


Personal Review
This is a simple and novel way to get a reminder that you need to use Te Reo Maori in the classroom each week. It also serves to improve knowledge of Maori words. I like this twitter handle, as it is simple and effective.

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Weaknesses/Limitations The limitation of following this twitter handle is that it is only weekly and could be more powerful if was to be used in an everyday tweeting context. Another possible limitation is the fact that the use of the word in a phrase only uses one example. It could be made more powerful by giving other examples of the use of the word.

Rating 16/20

 


Name – Te Reo Maori in English Medium School Classification – Static Website Location - http://tereomaori.tki.org.nz 

Fig 6 – Te Reo TKI (TKI, 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description If there is a “go to” Internet resource for teachers in New Zealand it is TKI and I have chosen it as it fits significantly with my framework. This website is all encompassing for Te Reo Maori education in New Zealand schools and has been designed for New Zealander’s by New Zealanders (TKI, 2014). This resource has 4 key links. These are Curriculum Guides, Resources, School stories and Teacher Tools (TKI, 2014). The focus for this resource guide is on teacher tools. Teacher tools include two main areas – Lesson Plans and Teacher Resources Collection. The lesson Plans are organised into the 8 curriculum levels and are very detailed for teachers to use when they are teaching in class (TKI, 2014). This is a real positive for teachers as much of teaching preparation time goes into planning. Prepared lesson plans like this allow for teachers to spend extra time completing their own learning in preparation for the lesson. The teacher resources collection consists of high frequency vocabulary lists – 1000 keywords, examples of learner and teacher assessment checklists, examples of learner goal setting, examples of learner strategies, bibliography of accessible articles and books on language teaching, grammar progression outline with references to further information and language learning task types and sample tasks in Māori (TKI, 2014). 

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Personal Review
This resource is amazing. It has so many facets that link to Te Reo Maori professional development for teachers and to use in classroom practice for students. It is a significant basket of knowledge. 

Weaknesses/Limitations
If a teacher were to use this resource they would need to take their time and have an opportunity to look at the other various links that you can go to. I have only focused on one specific area of Te Reo Maori in TKI. Tki is a resource that is so encompassing that you must always keep a specific focus on your purpose for using the website. Rating 20/20


Name – Maori Dictionary
Classification – Static/Interactive Website
Location – http://www.maoridictionary.co.nz/maori-resources

Fig 7 – Homepage (Maori Dictionary, 2003)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




 

 

 

Description
This dictionary is essential for finding Maori words and meanings in Maori and English. It is a selection of modern and old words. It has connections to all things Maori like important Māori people, key ancestors in traditional narratives, tribal groups, ancestral canoes, song types, Māori names for institutions, country names, place names and other proper names. There are also explanations of key concepts central to Māori culture (Maori Dictionary, 2003).
Personal Review
This website is essential to any teacher or learner engaging with the use of Te Reo Maori. So often there are many Maori words we see in day-to-day life such as place names, people’s names, words on signs etc. This is the perfect place to find out what those names mean and how they fit into sentences. 
Weaknesses/Limitations
There are no limitations to this resource. Rating 20/20


Name –WickED
Classification –Website Based Game
Location - http://www.wicked.org.nz/

Fig 8 – WickEd (WickEd, 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

Description
Although this resource was originally designed for students aged 7 – 12 years old, both parents and teachers are able to use it (WickEd, 2014). WickED's original aim was to provide online materials to motivate and extend student learning and to support the use of ICT after school but over the years has resulted in day to day classroom use (Trewern & Wenmoth, 2018). WickED has a range of differing interactive games for Te Reo Maori at different levels.

Personal Review
WickEd is used at our school as part of teacher task boards that fit with our formative assessment practice. Both teachers and students like this resource as it is gamified learning that connects to the current learning culture at our school. The games are simple for teachers, parents and students to follow and assist in the development of Te Reo Maori understanding and learning. I find this site very helpful and informative.
Weaknesses/Limitations
The limitations of this resource are the middle ground of the Maori interactive games. While many of the games are targeted at a general audience, some of the really more interesting and informative games are targeted at a more advanced level (WickEd, 2014). Rating 16/20


Name – Tim Nelson – Let’s Learn Te Reo Maori
Classification – Blog/Multimedia Resource – You Tube Video
Location - http://letslearntereomaori.blogspot.co.nz

Fig 9 – Let’s Learn Te Reo (Nelson, 2013)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

Description
This is a simple blog page that was created by teacher Tim Nelson and his room 2 class at Lakeside School. It has its foundations from the Toku Reo programme from the Maori Television (Nelson, 2013). Each blog post is linked to specific Te Reo Maori which is a site I will focus on as another resource later. What Tim Nelson does is break down the context of Te Reo Maori from a New Zealand European point of view.
Personal Review
Tim Nelson’s Blog is important as many of the resources I have found come from either grassroots or highly educated Te Reo Maori speakers or scholars. This blog has been created from an entirely different view that I acknowledge as being helpful to those that do not come from a Maori upbringing. This blog was important as it shows to staff and students you do not have to be Maori to engage in the learning of Te Reo Maori. 
Weaknesses/Limitations
While this resource is very helpful and sets a really positive tone it does have some significant limitations. This resource lacks progression as it was only intended to be a yearlong project. It ends abruptly when you are expecting to get more. Tim Nelson does put the link to where his thoughts and ideas come from which is helpful. Another limitation is that not all posts have a video link to hear pronunciation of the Maori words which is vital to learning Te Reo Maori. Rating 17/20


Name – Toko Reo
Classification – Multimedia Resource – Podcasts/On Demand Programme
Location - http://www.tokureo.maori.nz/index.cfm/1,186,0,43,html

Fig 10 – Toko Reo Home (Toko Reo, 2008)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description
Toko Reo is an online learning tool for Te Reo Maori that is based on Professor John Moorfield’s Te Wahanake Maori language programme. It is a massive online resource of 500 programmes lasting up to 30 minutes each with an additional 5-minute podcast for each individual show (Toko Reo, 2008).
Personal Review
I had the pleasure of working with Professor John Moorfield as an undergraduate at Otago University and had the privilege of implementing his Te Whanake programme as an assistant HOD of Te Reo Maori. It is enlightening that such a resource exists for any level of ability that starts with the basics. I feel that teachers would have a fun time working as an individual or as a group when going through the different stages. Because of the nature of the clips, they can also be used in the classroom to facilitate and engage students in learning.
Weaknesses/Limitations
The only limitation with this resource is the time factor for getting through all the videos. Altogether it consists of 250 hours of programme time excluding the podcasts. This means that it would need to be a resource that is implemented through a long-term plan for research away from school. Other than this I did not find many other limitations to this resource. I found it quite engaging, focused and to the point. Rating 18/20



Name – Springston Te Reo
Classification – Blog/Multimedia Resource – You Tube Video
Location - http://te-reo4springston.blogspot.co.nz

Fig 11 – Springston (Taylor, 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




Description
Teacher Allana Taylor from Sprinston School in Christchurch created this blog page. The information was gathered as a result of professional development, which the school completed through Te Wananga O Aotearoa in 2013 (Taylor, 2014). It is a collection of basic Te Reo Maori Phrases that can be used everyday as well as simple guides to be able to pronounce Maori words.
Personal Review
There is something about the simplicity of this bog that really works for me. I like the way that information and knowledge is shared. It is not over the top and it is just enough to take away and put into practice around the school and in the classroom. The visual aids that are used are simple and effective and can be used by teachers and students to understand what is being said.
The videos that are included are put in purposefully and when they are needed. They are not there just as another thing to make the blog look impressive.
This has been an impressive resource to find.
Weaknesses/Limitations
While this resource is very helpful and sets a really positive tone it does have some significant limitations like the other blog that I have used as a resource. This resource lacks progression as it was only intended to be a year long project. That being said, it is still an amazing basket of knowledge. Rating 17/20



Name – Maori Language
Classification – Twitter
Location – Twitter Handle - @languageKboard

Fig 12 – MLK Handle (languageKboard, 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

Description
Dennis Gray is the inventor of the Maori Keyboard and is passionate about all things Te Reo Maori (languageKboard, 2014). This is his Twitter account. He tweets very good articles and findings about Te Reo Maori that are not directly associated with teaching or learning process of Te Reo Maori but impacts in New Zealand culture about teaching and learning of Te Reo Maori in New Zealand (languageKboard, 2014).
Personal Review
I really like this resource as it looks at a different aspect of developing Te Reo Maori in the classroom. The twitter feed of this user has some important articles about what is happening in the current climate and the importance of the preservation of the Maori language.
The articles posted more recently reflect on the decline in Maori language users. These tweets relate to the theory behind why we need to make sure we, as teachers, are meeting the legislative requirements of teaching Te Reo Maori in our classrooms. 
Weaknesses/Limitations
Again another huge limitation of twitter is having to wait for regular updates or when a person is able to tweet. There is some really good information from the user but it is often a quick succession of tweets and then a lengthy break. Rating 16/20


Name – Te Reo Maori: The past 20 years and looking forward
Classification – Journal Article
Location – http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.otago.ac.nz/stable/3623221?seq=3

Fig 13 – Reedy Article (Reedy, 2000)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description
This paper is from a journal article that outlined the population situation of Maori in New Zealand as a backdrop to the developments of the Maori language revitalization efforts from 1980 to 2000. It goes on to look at issues that will affect Te Reo Maori as it moves into the new millennium (Reedy, 2000).
Personal Review
The most interesting point about this article is that we are 14 years into the future from its publication date. I have a lot of respect for the author as a foremost expert on Te Reo Maori and a Maori Scholar. This article is valued as Sir Tamati Reedy had a significant involvement with the revitalisation of Te Kohanga Reo and there is not a lot of Maori Scholars that have written articles like this.
It is important for teachers and learners to understand the transition that Te Reo Maori has undertaken over the last 35 years and why the language is so important to Maori and New Zealanders. It is unique to New Zealand as it is considered “kiwiana”. The article acknowledges that we need to have a saturated environment where the language is monitored and nurtured (Reedy, 2000).
Weaknesses/LimitationsIt is a really short article and does leave the reader wanting an update or further information.
Rating 18/20


Name – Maori Language Week
Classification – Static website
Location – http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/maori-language-week

Fig 14 – Maori Language Week (New Zealand History, 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 


Description
As part of the Maori Language week the New Zealand History Website has collated important information around this important event including the history. On this sub-article of the Treaty of Waitangi you find 7 important points in the contents; Introduction to Maori Language Week, History of the Maori Language, 100 Maori Words Every New Zealander Should Know, 1000 Maori Place Names, Waitangi Tribunal Claim, and Further Information (New Zealand History, 2014). Each special area has really in depth knowledge that relates to the importance of Te Reo Maori in New Zealand.
Personal Review
This resource is another that is really important as it focuses heavily on how the Maori language died in the Native Schools of the early 20th century and how much effort went into restoring it in the later 20th Century. It links very nicely with Sir Tamati Reedy’s resource I have included. The information in this resource really does outline the significant importance of Tikanga Maori (Customs and traditions) to those learning Te Reo Maori.
Weaknesses/Limitations
No limitations to this article. Rating 20/20


Rating Card
Maori Alphabet
Theory and/or Practice Based = 5
Linked to learning = 5
Assessable to all learners = 5
Understandable for learners = 4
Korero Maori
Theory and/or Practice Based = 5
Linked to learning = 5
Assessable to all learners = 4
Understandable for learners = 4
Kupu o te Ra
Theory and/or Practice Based = 4
Linked to learning = 4
Assessable to all learners = 4
Understandable for learners = 4
Te Reo Maori - TKI
Theory and/or Practice Based = 5
Linked to learning = 5
Assessable to all learners = 5
Understandable for learners = 5
Maori Dictionary
Theory and/or Practice Based = 5
Linked to learning = 5
Assessable to all learners = 5
Understandable for learners = 5
WickEd
Theory and/or Practice Based = 4
Linked to learning = 5
Assessable to all learners = 4
Understandable for learners = 3

Lets Learn Te Reo
Theory and/or Practice Based = 4
Linked to learning = 5
Assessable to all learners = 4
Understandable for learners = 4
Toko Reo
Theory and/or Practice Based = 5
Linked to learning = 5
Assessable to all learners = 4
Understandable for learners = 4
Springston Te Reo
Theory and/or Practice Based = 4
Linked to learning = 5
Assessable to all learners = 4
Understandable for learners = 4
LanguageKboard
Theory and/or Practice Based = 4
Linked to learning = 4
Assessable to all learners = 4
Understandable for learners = 4
The Past 20 Years
Theory and/or Practice Based = 5
Linked to learning = 5
Assessable to all learners = 4
Understandable for learners = 4
Maori Language Week 
Theory and/or Practice Based = 4
Linked to learning = 5
Assessable to all learners = 4
Understandable for learners = 4


References
Felder, RM and Hardgraft, RG. (2013). Educational Practice and Educational Research in Engineering: Partners, Antagonists, or Ships Passing in the Night? Journal of Engineering Education. DOI: 10.1002/jee.20015

Korero Maori. (2014). He Pataka Kupu. Retrieved from**http://www.korero.maori.nz**
Kupumaorinz. (2014). Twitter home page [Twitter]. Retrieved from **http://twitter.com/kupumaorinz**
LanguageKboard. (2014). Twitter home page [Twitter]. Retrieved from **https://twitter.com/LanguageKboard**
Maori Dictionary. (2003). Maori Language Resources. Retrieved from**http://www.maoridictionary.co.nz/maori-resources**
Nelson, T. (2013, December 13). Lets Learn Te Reo Maori [Web log message]. Retrieved from**http://letslearntereomaori.blogspot.co.nz**
New Zealand History. (2014). Maori Language Week. Retrieved from**http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/maori-language-week**
Rae, D. (2013, July 24). Maori Alphabet (Arapu) [Video file]. Retrieved from**https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9081U86Ylf4**

Reedy, T. (2000). Te Reo Maori: The Past 20 Years and Looking Forward, Oceanic Linguistics, 39, 157-169. Retrieved from the University of Otago Library Electronic Database.

Taylor, A. (2014, July 8). Springston Te Reo [Web log message]. Retrieved from
**http://te-reo4springston.blogspot.co.nz**
Toko Reo. (2008). Toko Reo. Retrieved from http://www.tokureo.maori.nz/index.cfm/1,186,0,43,html
Trewern, A., & Wenmoth, D. (2008). Evaluation of student facing web based services: WickED (CORE Education). (Report to the Ministry of Education).
TKI. (2007). Developing the Draft. Retrieved from**http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/Archives/Curriculum-project-archives/Developing-the-draft**
TKI. (2014). Te Reo Maori in English-Mainstream Schools. Retrieved from**http://tereomaori.tki.org.nz/Teacher-tools**
WickEd. (2014). Taunekeneke. Retrieved fromhttp://www.wicked.org.nz/Kokona-Maori/Taunekeneke
WickEd. (2014). Welcome to WickEd. Retrieved from**http://www.wicked.org.nz/**

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